What is Artificial Intelligence?

Kajal Pawar

a year ago

The refrigerator has separate components for different food items. The other day my refrigerator detected that it was running short of eggs. It placed an order to replenished that stock. Intelligent! Right?
Intelligence has always been natural to humans and animals. Machines, on the other hand, have traditionally been known to perform only those tasks that they are programmed to carry out.
So, while a human being can work on their own. Machine have required humans to make them useful. But things are changing.
Human beings intelligent as they are have tried finding out ways to make machines take up some of their works loads and taking decision and acting accordingly.  
In recent years, the Boom in Artificial intelligence or AI. Its rebirth as it is often called, is attributed to a large extent to the sheer volume of data that is being generated every day.
Advancement in data sciences has meant that making sense of data is easier now. Even for a machine, which gives a good starting point to the machines to take a decision and act accordingly.
Now, that you are getting introduced to Artificial Intelligence.
artificial intelligence
artificial intelligence
Let’s define What is artificial intelligence?
The term Artificial intelligence was first coined a decade ago in the year 1956 by John McCarthy at Dartmouth conference. He defined “Artificial intelligence as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines”. In a sense, artificial intelligence is a technique of getting machine to work and behave like humans.
In the recent past, artificial intelligence has been able to accomplish this by creating machines and robots that have been used in a wide range of fields including Robotics, Health care, Marketing, Business Analytics and many more.
Let’s drive down to something more common place.
Imagine a situation where a trainer is faced with a barrage of routine questions. So much so that she/he doesn’t have much time to dwell on critical aspects of the subjects. Artificial intelligence adds value here as well, to allow the human trainer to add such value that the machine can’t. Artificial intelligence is taking up resolving routine tasks.
What about going to a supermarket to pick up a grocery. As you approach the entrance, the Artificial intelligence recognizes you through a camera and activates your account. The door slides open, you enter the store, you take the trolly and you starting populating it with provisions. The items start appearing in your virtual shopping cart. If you put something back, the same gets deleted from your virtual cart as well. When you finally walk out of the store your credit card gets charged with the amount of purchase.
What is enabling technology? The usual suspect Artificial Intelligence.
So, there are many different applications of artificial intelligence available in our day to day life as well.
For example, 
Personal assistance like Google Home, Alexa can answer your factual questions, helping kids in particular with their studies and also playing music and so on.
We can say that “Artificial Intelligence is Everywhere” assured by human intelligence it is destined to change our lives for the better.
The future is definitely to embrace Artificial Intelligence.
Now, before I go any further. Let me clear a very common misconception. People often tend to think that Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning are the same, since they have common applications.
For Example, SIRI is an application of artificial intelligence, machine learning and deep learning. So how are these technologies related?
We can simply say that 
Artificial Intelligence is the science of getting machines to mimic the behaviors of humans.
Machine Learning is a subset of artificial intelligence that focuses on getting machines to makes decision by feeding them data.
Deep Learning is a subset of machine learning that uses the concept of neural networks to solve a complex problem.
So, to sum it up, artificial intelligence, machine learning and deep learning are interconnected fields.
Machine Learning and Deep Learning aids AI by providing a set of algorithms and neural networks to solve data-driven problems.
However, is not restricted to only Machine Learning and Deep Learning. It covers vast domains or fields including Natural Language Processing, Object Detection, Computer Vision, Robotics, Expert System and many more.
So, now let’s understand different stages of Artificial intelligence.
So, Basically, when I was doing my research, I found that in different videos, articles and blogs they stated that Artificial Narrow Intelligence, Artificial General Intelligence and Artificial Super intelligence are the different types of Artificial intelligence.
But Artificial Intelligence has three different stages.
The types of Artificial intelligence are completely different from the stages of artificial intelligence. 
So, the different stages of Artificial Intelligence are 
1.    Artificial Narrow Intelligence
2.    Artificial General Intelligence
3.    Artificial super intelligence
So, what is Artificial Narrow Intelligence?
Artificial Narrow Intelligence is also known as weak Artificial intelligence, is a stage of artificial intelligence that involves machines that can perform only a narrowly defined set of specific tasks.
Some of the example Artificial Narrow Intelligence are SIRI, Alexa, AlphaGo, Sophia, the Self-driving car and so on.
Almost, all the Artificial intelligence-based system that builds until this date comes under the category of Artificial Narrow Intelligence
Next stage of Artificial Intelligence is Artificial General Intelligence.
Artificial General intelligence is also known as Strong Artificial Intelligence, is the stage in the evolution of artificial intelligence wherein machines will possess the ability to think and makes decisions just like as humans.
There are currently no existing examples of Artificial General intelligence. But its belief that we will soon be able to create machines that are equivalent to human beings.
Artificial General intelligence is actually considered as a threat to human existence by many well-known scientists such as Stephen Hawkins.
Moving on to our last stage which is Artificial Super intelligence.
Artificial Super intelligence is that stage of Artificial intelligence when the capability of a computer will surpass human beings.
Artificial Super intelligence is currently seen as a hypothetical situation as depicted in movies and science fictions books.
But I believe that the machine is not very far from reaching this stage taking into consideration our current pace. However, such a system doesn’t exist now.

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